Individual locks of hair appear wavy; the fairly downy fibres have about two to four crimps per centimetre, but the coarse hairs are fairly straight. [9], The genera Lama and Vicugna are, with the two species of true camels, the sole existing representatives of a very distinct section of the Artiodactyla or even-toed ungulates, called Tylopoda, or "bump-footed", from the peculiar bumps on the soles of their feet. The scales of the outer layer of the fibre are indistinct, and the cortical layer contains pigment, with variations in the amount and distribution, which produces the various colours and tones. "East and Southeast Asia." [27], Llamas that are well-socialized and trained to halter and lead after weaning are very friendly and pleasant to be around. They can always move up or down in the social ladder by picking small fights. [48] Gregory de Bolivar estimated that in his day, as many as 300,000 were employed in the transport of produce from the Potosí mines alone, but since the introduction of horses, mules, and donkeys, the importance of the llama as a beast of burden has greatly diminished. They mate for an extended time (20–45 minutes), also unusual in a large animal. Endangered animals are a class of animal introduced in update 1.7.0. The Union of International Associations (UIA) is a research institute and documentation centre, based in Brussels. Llama fleece consists of the coarse guard hairs of the protective outer coat (about 20 percent) and the short, crimped (wavy) fibre of the insulating undercoat. [33][34] They are used most commonly in the western regions of the United States, where larger predators, such as coyotes and feral dogs, are prevalent. The fiber comes in many different colors ranging from white or grey to reddish-brown, brown, dark brown and black. Sciences, Culinary Arts and Personal In the Inca Empire, llamas were the only beasts of burden, and many of the people dominated by the Inca had long traditions of llama herding. Llamas can learn simple tasks after a few repetitions. [50], In Chile hueque populations declined towards extinction in the 16th and 17th century being replaced by European livestock. [7] They were, however, separated by Georges Cuvier in 1800 under the name of lama along with the guanaco. The four forms commonly distinguished by the inhabitants of South America are recognized as distinct species, though with difficulties in defining their distinctive characteristics. Their characteristics became more general, and they lost those that distinguished them as camelids; hence, they were classified as ancestral artiodactyls. The llama, the largest animal on the Altiplano and seldom seen below elevations of 7,500 feet (2,300 metres), is…, …mountain species, such as the llama, exhibit an adaptation that is heritable and has a genetic basis.…. If the mating is not successful within two to three weeks, the female is mated again. They will often hum to each other as a form of communication. Some are grey or black. Endangered animal categories, definitions, and lists. The length of the llama's colon allows it to survive on much less water than other animals. Many are also descended from ancestors that have previously been domesticated, a state that tends to produce a certain amount of variation from the original type. The gestation period lasts about 11 months, and the female gives birth to one young. Restrictions on importation of livestock from South America due to hoof and mouth disease, combined with lack of commercial interest, resulted in the number of llamas staying low until the late 20th century. [16] They have a complex stomach with several compartments that allows them to consume lower quality, high cellulose foods. The fiber is extremely delicate and soft, and highly valued for the purposes of weaving, but the quantity that each animal produces is minimal. Anthony Aristar, Helen Aristar-Dry and Yichun Xie. Llama fibre is used, alone or in blends, for knitwear and for woven fabrics made into outerwear. Llamas are normally sheared every two years, each yielding about 3–3.5 kg of fibre.

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