"[17], The term critical theory is often appropriated when an author works within sociological terms, yet attacks the social or human sciences, thus attempting to remain "outside" those frames of inquiry. critical archaeology Source: The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology Author(s): Timothy Darvill [Th]A theoretical approach to archaeology that assumes that archaeologists have an … In the 1960s, Jürgen Habermas, a proponent of critical social theory,[13] raised the epistemological discussion to a new level in his Knowledge and Human Interests (1968), by identifying critical knowledge as based on principles that differentiated it either from the natural sciences or the humanities, through its orientation to self-reflection and emancipation. ". The theory must adequately explain the social problems that exist, offer practical solutions for how to respond to them, and abide by the norms of criticism established by the field. According to postmodernism, the international structures posited in realist and other international relations theory are social constructions that reflect a worldview that serves the interests of elites. Critical theory is a social philosophy pertaining to the reflective assessment and critique of society and culture in order to reveal and challenge power structures. Guide to the Critical Theory Institute Audio and Video Recordings, University of California, Irvine. Instead, many postmodern scholars have adopted "alternatives that encourage reflection about the 'politics and poetics' of their work. With origins in sociology, as well as in literary criticism,[citation needed] it argues that social problems are influenced and created more by societal structures and cultural assumptions than by individual and psychological factors. As a result, the focus of research is centered on local manifestations, rather than broad generalizations. His ideas regarding the relationship between modernity and rationalization are in this sense strongly influenced by Max Weber. In these accounts, the embodied, collaborative, dialogic, and improvisational aspects of qualitative research are clarified. Critical theory as it is known today can be traced to Marx's critiques of the economy and society. Texts associated with the Frankfurt School focused their critique on the centralization of economic, social, and political control that was transpiring around them. Kant's notion of critique has been associated with the overturning of false, unprovable, or dogmatic philosophical, social, and political beliefs. He described a theory as critical insofar as it seeks "to liberate human beings from the circumstances that enslave them. Critical theory, as used by archaeologists, explores the relationship between our knowledge of the past and the context of its production. This included the rise of the Nazi regime, state capitalism, and the spread of mass-produced culture. Critical theory is a social theory oriented toward critiquing and changing society as a whole. Maintaining that ideology is the principal obstacle to human liberation, critical theory was established as a school of thought primarily by the Frank… [8] This ambivalence was rooted, of course, in the historical circumstances in which the work was originally produced, particularly the rise of National Socialism, state capitalism, and culture industry as entirely new forms of social domination that could not be adequately explained within the terms of traditional Marxist sociology. [3]:5–8, Postmodern critical theory analyzes the fragmentation of cultural identities in order to challenge modernist-era constructs such as metanarratives, rationality, and universal truths, while politicizing social problems "by situating them in historical and cultural contexts, to implicate themselves in the process of collecting and analyzing data, and to relativize their findings. The data and interpretations presented in this paper were developed during the 4 1/2 years the author worked for “Archaeology in

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