(2012). Synonyms for pulque in Free Thesaurus. Biotechnol. Metab. It usually lasts from 3 to 6 h, but overnight or even extended periods of time (e.g., 3–12 days) are not uncommon (Crist, 1939; Parsons and Darling, 2000; Ramírez Rancaño, 2000; Jennings et al., 2005). (2008). Mora-López, J. L., Reyes-Agüero, J. In vivo anti-infective effect against S. enterica serovar Typhymurium (Giles-Gómez et al., 2016). Despite the Mexican norm NMX-V-037-1972 defined the desirable physicochemical properties of bulk pulque for direct consumption, particularly for density, pH (3.5–4.2), and alcohol degree (4–9%) (Table 2; Secretaría de Economía, 1972b), during traditional production of pulque the degree of fermentation varies according to the producer and is considered adequate when a characteristic alcohol, acetic notes, and texture (viscosity) is reached. Pulque producers will do everything from abstaining from sex during fermentation, to refraining from wearing a hat around the brewing batch. Figure 2. 46, 275–303. These results revealed the presence of a major microbial content associated to the accumulated sap in the maguey cavity (Escalante et al., 2008). 5:1. doi: 10.4172/2324-9323.1000187, Riveros-McKay, F., Campos, I., Giles-Gomez, M., Bolivar, F., and Escalante, A. The emperor and princess wed, and their son was named Meconetzin [mekoˈnet͡sin] (maguey son). However, the industrialization of pulque introduced fundamental changes in the public perception of traditional producers and consumers resulting in a product that the majority of traditional consumers never tasted before. México DF: Fondo de Cultura Económica. (C) Freshly collected aguamiel appearance (Morelos state). In ancient times its consumption was restricted and only priests, nobles and the elderly were allowed to drink it. This production and easy shipment of the drink made Hidalgo rich, and gave rise to a "pulque aristocracy" made up of some of the most powerful families of this time: Torres Adalid, Pimenta y Fagoaga, Macedo and others. Sánchez-Marroquín et al. (2007). This information provides new insights to focus further efforts on the characterization of the potential probiotic of this LAB from pulque. Plasma clearance of ethanol and its excretion in the milk of rural women who consume pulque. [6] After the Spanish Conquest of Mexico, the drink became secular and its consumption rose. Vigen. Further studies on the microbiology of pulque, allowed the identification of a wider bacterial and yeast diversity. SpringerPlus 5:708. doi: 10.1186/s40064-016-2370-7. (2007). Normas Mex. [30] Beer producers promoted the idea that pulque was generally made this way, generally by word of mouth and insinuation. Its in vitro effects on corn tortilla. UNAM, Instituto de Investigaciones Sociales. By the beginning of the twentieth-century pulque production reached about 500 million L/year. [8] In the 20th century, the drink fell into decline, mostly because of competition from beer, which became more prevalent with the arrival of European immigrants. (Most pulque has a relatively mild alcohol content anyway, at around 4 to 6 percent.) Maguey has been cultivated at least since 200 CE in Tula, Tulancingo and Teotihuacan, and wild plants have been exploited for far longer. Timing and rate of speciation in Agave (Agavaceae). Figure 1. Figure 4. The ecology of Zymomonas: a review. Draft genome sequence of Leuconostoc mesenteroides P45 isolated from pulque, a traditional Mexican alcoholic fermented beverage. Pulque[a] (Spanish: ['pulke] (listen); Classical Nahuatl: metoctli[2]), or octli, is an alcoholic beverage made from the fermented sap of the maguey (agave) plant. Correlación ecológica entre consumo de bebidas alcohólicas y mortalidad por cirrosis hepática en México. This effort, as well as the diversification of the agave industry, were led in particular by Ignacio Torres Adalid, known as “El Rey del Pulque” (“The King of Pulque” (Ramírez Rancaño, 2000). [28], In spite of its former popularity, pulque represents only 10% of the alcoholic beverages consumed in Mexico today. Based on their physicochemical properties this norm defines two types of aguamiel. Names included (translated) "My Office", "Memories of the Future", "Drink and Go", "I'm Waiting for You Here at the Corner", and, across the street from the National Chamber of Deputies, "The Recreation Center of Those Across the Street". Natural fertilization of agave plantations is self-provided by recycling naturally degraded agave plants or by the addition of agave ashes dispersed around the growing plants. The sap collected from A. mapisaga ‘Blanco’ contains (wt % in dry matter) 11.5% composed mainly of 75% of sugars (sucrose, fructose, glucose, and fructooligosaccharides), 0.3% of free amino acids (essential amino acids with exception of methionine), 3% of proteins, and 3% of ashes. Some were ostentatious with great architectural harmony such as the Montecillos Hacienda, of Spanish colonial style and originally built in the 17th century by the Jesuits or San Antonio Ometusco Hacienda built by architect Antonio Rivas Mercado. Tequila is fermented and distilled to make a strong alcohol, however, while pulque is more like a type of beer, with a relatively low alcohol content and a distinct sour flavor which comes from fermentation. Anthropol. in a minor proportion. However, the next step in the study of pulque microbiology relies on the application of metagenomic approaches to study the entire microbial composition (including both bacteria and yeasts) in combination with other high-throughput omic methodologies such as transcriptomics, metabolomics or proteomics. Los conejos y la embriaguez. For this purpose, around 2 L of fermented pulque are placed in a ~20 L vat made of clay, glass, wood, plastic or fiberglass, were fresh, high-quality aguamiel is poured. [19], After the Conquest, pulque lost its sacred character, and both indigenous and Spanish people began to drink it. In ancient Mesoamerica, pulque was consumed during feasting or ritual ceremonies and was also offered to the gods. Table 1. LAB detected as the most abundant bacteria in pulque such as Lactobacillus acidophilus and L. plantarum (Table 3), are proposed to play an important role also due to their antimicrobial activities. Additionally, diverse killer and killer-resistant yeasts were isolated from aguamiel and pulque, some of them with a remarkable alcohol tolerance (Estrada-Godina et al., 2001) (Table 2). Biotechnol. Metabolic traits of main microbial groups present in aguamiel and during pulque fermentation. Acetic acid metabolism. Clínica Organo Hosp. Agave species used for aguamiel extraction and pulque production. Microb. J. Rev. Vigen. 4, 883–891. The first major work involving pulque is a large mural called the "Pulque Drinkers", unearthed in 1968 at the pyramid of Cholula, Puebla. 58, 1626–1634. Food, music, dancing and the co-mingling of the sexes was prohibited. Soccol, C. R., De Dea, J., Tiemi, C., Rigan, M., Porto de Souza, L., and Soccol, T. (2012). García-Ruiz, A., González de Llano, D., Esteban-Fernández, A., Requena, T., Bartolomé, B., and Moreno-Arribas, M. V. (2014). Wilson, I., and Pineda, A. The tlaquichero "was perhaps the most widely known and successful of the images of Mexican types. Available online at: http://www.economia-nmx.gob.mx/normasmx/detallenorma.nmx?clave=NMX-V-022-1972 [Accessed May 17, 2016]. This has diminished since then since irrigation, roads and other infrastructure has made possible other, more lucrative enterprises. [7], The maguey was one of the most sacred and important plants in ancient Mexico. It was thought that the aguamiel collecting in the center of the plant was her blood. Food Chem. Microbiol., 30 June 2016 [7] In the 1930s, the government of Lázaro Cárdenas campaigned against pulque, as part of an effort to reduce alcoholic consumption in general. Other clones identified as L. mesenteroides ranging from ~0.5 to 25% of total clones analyzed for each sample. Encuesta Nacional de Adicciones. Econ. Mysteries of the Mexican pyramids. The total content of protein and amino acids is substantially less than what the common myth in rural areas propose, which is that “pulque lacks one degree to have the benefits of meat.”. Recently, pulque makers have found a way to preserve the beverage in cans. “Pulque fermentation,” in Handbook of Plant-Based Fermented Food and Beverage Technology, ed Y. H. Hui (Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press), 691–706. J. Often artists portrayed mixed-race castas. Biofuels 3:11. doi: 10.1186/1754-6834-3-11. In vivo adherence to mice intestinal mucosa (Castro-Rodríguez et al., 2015). However, by 1935–1940, the production and consumption of pulque was seriously affected again by an official anti-alcoholic policy, a severe devastation of agave plantations and the consolidation of the beer as a popular alcoholic beverage (Gonçalves de Lima, 1956; Ramírez Rancaño, 2000; Jácome, 2003; Ramírez et al., 2004; Ramírez Rodríguez, 2004; Lappe-Oliveras et al., 2008; Escalante et al., 2012). Production of ethanol by Saccharomyces, non-Saccharomyces yeasts, and Z. mobilis. It has become a trendy drink among youth and back-to-your-roots types. Then they follow Tlacuache's meandering path from cantina to cantina. Probiotic assessment of LAB isolated from aguamiel and pulque. Storage or party rooms sacred rituals ferritin concentrations associated with the production starting... Was finally discovered ( Carpenter, 2012 ) and prohibitions for the fermentation vats drink responsibly priests ' and. ”: alcohol, if you drink too much, you cut a hollow into a plastic for. Bottle of unflavored pulque with bamboo cap pulqu… pulque is consumed in Mexico alone! A study of the 20th century, pulquerías became socially accepted, and Yáñez,! 'S ability to drink pulque this information provides new insights to focus further efforts on characterization... Lactobacillus strains with probiotic potential transported to specific vats where the seed previously. 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