[20] Large quantities of machinery, including cotton processing plant, were exported around the world. [14][15] However, more recent work suggests that it could come from *mamma ("mother", in reference to a local river goddess). The city centre is on the east bank of the River Irwell, near its confluences with the Rivers Medlock and Irk, and is relatively low-lying, being between 35 to 42 metres (115 to 138 feet) above sea level. Manchester has formal twinning arrangements (or "friendship agreements") with several places. [208][209] Of the schools in the LEA with 30 or more pupils, four had 90 per cent or more pupils achieving at least five A*–C grades at GCSE including maths and English: Manchester High School for Girls, St Bede's College, Manchester Islamic High School for Girls, and The King David High School. 1 and Oakland Gardens Station is operated by East Farmington. Manchester was credited as the main driving force behind British indie music of the 1980s led by The Smiths, later including The Stone Roses, Happy Mondays, Inspiral Carpets, and James. Fire Dispatch for Mount Vernon, Milford and Wilton. The Tommy sector is one of two Low sectors that overlies the Manchester Airport. West Hartford is operating fully this trunked system. From 1975, BBC programmes including Mastermind,[231] and Real Story,[232] were made at New Broadcasting House on Oxford Road. Manchester is a city of notable firsts. [63] In 1974, by way of the Local Government Act 1972, the City of Manchester became a metropolitan district of the metropolitan county of Greater Manchester. ", "Release Edition Reference Tables: Business Demography, 2012", "Manchester Airports Group dividend windfall for councils", "South Manchester: Living in the area: Introducing South Manchester", "The English Indices of Deprivation 2010: Local Authorities District Summaries File Notes", "Boom city Manchester has more super-rich than anywhere outside London", "Education and skills in your area: Manchester LA", "The Big Nine – Regional Office Review – Q4 2014", "Prepare for regional renaissance as businesses favour 'northshoring, "One Angel Square, Co-operative Group HQ", "A History of the World: Liverpool Road Station sundial", "Extra track suggested to ease Manchester's rail bottlenecks", "HS2 to enter Manchester via tunnel under city", "George Osborne launches £600m Northern Hub rail project", "UK's railway stations with most train delays revealed", "New Metrolink line to Wythenshawe and Manchester Airport to open on November 3 – a year ahead of schedule", "Light Rail and Tram Statistics: England 2016/17", "Passenger trams start running to and from Rochdale town centre for first time in 80 years", "Metrolink's Trafford Park £350m Tramline Approved", "Enabling works begin on new Trafford Park Metrolink line", "Stagecoach welcomes government funding for Greater Manchester transport strategy", "Manchester Airport is Officially 'A380 Ready, "Giant Airbus A380 lands at Manchester Airport", "Airport History: City Airport and Heliport", "Where to start: City Airport and Heliport", "Manchester's Waxi water taxi service runs aground after two years – and the boats are being sold off too", "Census shows more people in Manchester are cycling to work", "Pollstar Concert Industry Awards Winners Archives", "M.E.N Named Most Popular Entertainment Venue on Planet", "Trof presents the Deaf Institute: café, bar and music hall", "Manchester: the UK's rock and indie music capital", "New home for Cornerhouse and Library Theatre in £19m arts centre plan", "The Guardian view on Manchester's new cultural space: from one kind of factory to another", "The Factory Manchester £110m arts venue approved", Executive meeting: 16. [133] The present system mostly runs on former commuter rail lines converted for light rail use, and crosses the city centre via on-street tram lines. partially state funded), but it reverted to independent status in 1976 after abolition of the direct-grant system. Although the Industrial Revolution brought wealth to the city, it also brought poverty and squalor to a large part of the population. [190], Anthony Burgess is among the 20th-century writers who made Manchester their home. [221], An attempt to launch a Northern daily newspaper, the North West Times, employing journalists made redundant by other titles, closed in 1988. [44], Cotton processing and trading continued to fall in peacetime, and the exchange closed in 1968. [48], Manchester has a history of attacks attributed to Irish Republicans, including the Manchester Martyrs of 1867, arson in 1920, a series of explosions in 1939, and two bombs in 1992. [88], Between the beginning of July 2011 and end of June 2012 (mid-year estimate date), births exceeded deaths by 4,800. First-class sporting facilities were built for the 2002 Commonwealth Games, including the City of Manchester Stadium, the National Squash Centre and the Manchester Aquatics Centre. [59][60] The BBC reports that redevelopment of recent years has heightened claims that Manchester is the second city of the UK. See Milford Area Communications Center for police dispatch frequency. The Manchester Velodrome was built as a part of the bid for the 2000 games and has become a catalyst for British success in cycling. [114], Women fare better in Manchester than the rest of the country in comparative pay with men. An extensive canal network, including the Manchester Ship Canal, was built to carry freight from the Industrial Revolution onward; the canals are still maintained, though now largely repurposed for leisure use. [28] Manchester became an important centre for the manufacture and trade of woollens and linen, and by about 1540, had expanded to become, in John Leland's words, "The fairest, best builded, quickest, and most populous town of all Lancashire. [194], The Madchester scene of the 1980s, from which groups including The Stone Roses, the Happy Mondays, Inspiral Carpets, 808 State, James and The Charlatans emerged, was based around clubs such as The Haçienda. Need help on listening to Capital? [90], Of all households in Manchester, 0.23 per cent were Same-Sex Civil Partnership households, compared with an English national average of 0.16 per cent in 2011. [30] Thereafter the number began to decline and Manchester was surpassed as the largest centre of cotton spinning by Bolton in the 1850s and Oldham in the 1860s. Alexander, Christine, and Sara L. Pearson. [95] There is also a well-established Chinatown in the city with a substantial number of oriental restaurants and Chinese supermarkets. [62], The town of Manchester was granted a charter by Thomas Grelley in 1301, but lost its borough status in a court case of 1359. Manchester Metropolitan University was formed as Manchester Polytechnic on the merger of three colleges in 1970. [196] The night-time economy has a value of about £100 million. The name Manchester originates from the Latin name Mamucium or its variant Mancunio and the citizens are still referred to as Mancunians (/mænˈkjuːniən/). Manchester was an important cradle of the Labour Party and the Suffragette Movement.[40]. The size of the Jewish population in Greater Manchester is the largest in Britain outside London. [161] Manchester also has the most indie and rock music events outside London. Manchester is 35.0 miles (56.3 km) north-east of Liverpool and 35.0 miles (56.3 km) north-west of Sheffield, making the city the halfway point between the two. Manchester experiences a temperate oceanic climate (Köppen: Cfb), like much of the British Isles, with warm summers and cool winters. [63] That year, Ringway, the village where the Manchester Airport is located, was added to the city. Manchester is contiguous on all sides with several large settlements, except for a small section along its southern boundary with Cheshire. [49] The final insurance payout was over £400 million; many affected businesses never recovered from the loss of trade. The Manchester Area controls flights in and out of Manchester Airport, Nashua Airport, Pease Airport, Laconia Airport, and Concord airport. Manchester was thus the target of bombing by the Luftwaffe, and by late 1940 air raids were taking place against non-military targets. [173] The Manchester Museum opened to the public in the 1880s, has notable Egyptology and natural history collections. The city has the highest number of local radio stations outside London, including BBC Radio Manchester, Hits Radio Manchester, Capital Manchester, Greatest Hits Manchester, Heart North West, Smooth North West, Gold, 96.2 The Revolution, NMFM (North Manchester FM) and XS Manchester. The Rylands Library Papyrus P52, believed to be the earliest extant New Testament text, is on permanent display there.[185]. The Manchester Larger Urban Zone, a Eurostat measure of the functional city-region approximated to local government districts, had a population of 2,539,100 in 2004. [94], Kidd identifies Moss Side, Longsight, Cheetham Hill, Rusholme, as centres of population for ethnic minorities. In the 1950s, the city was home to a so-called "Manchester School" of classical composers, which was composed of Harrison Birtwistle, Peter Maxwell Davies, David Ellis and Alexander Goehr. Manchester is well known as a city of sport. The area also attracts large numbers of Chinese students to the city who, in attending the local universities,[96] contribute to Manchester having the third-largest Chinese population in Europe.[97][98]. These features are its climate, its proximity to a seaport at Liverpool, the availability of water power from its rivers, and its nearby coal reserves.[67].

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